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These may not be the same thing as a complete genealogy of the human race, but geneticists can still use them to tackle some of the same questions that intrigued Chang.Recently, two geneticists, Peter Ralph of the University of Southern California and Graham Coop of the University of California at Davis, decided to look at the ancestry of Europe.Even within the past thousand years, Ralph and Coop found, people on opposite sides of the continent share a lot of segments in common–so many, in fact, that it’s statistically impossible for them to have gotten them all from a single ancestor.Instead, someone in Turkey and someone in England have to share a lot of ancestors.Chang was not a genealogist who had decided to make me his personal project.Instead, he is a statistician at Yale who likes to think of genealogy as a mathematical problem.This means that if you compare two people’s DNA, you will find some chunks that are identical in sequence.

Just as a new deck gets more scrambled the more times you shuffle it, chromosomes get more shuffled from one generation to the next.As you go back further in time, more of those lines cross as you encounter more common ancestors of the living population. There comes a point at which, Chang wrote, “all individuals who have any descendants among the present-day individuals are actually ancestors of all present-day individuals.” In 2002, the journalist Steven Olson wrote an article in the The most recent common ancestor of every European today (except for recent immigrants to the Continent) was someone who lived in Europe in the surprisingly recent past—only about 600 years ago.In other words, all Europeans alive today have among their ancestors the same man or woman who lived around 1400. Chang figured that out by expanding his model from living Europeans to living humans, and getting an estimate of 3400 years instead of a thousand for the all-ancestor generation.This diagram shows how two first cousins share a piece of DNA that’s identical by descent (IBD for short).

Ralph and Coop identified 1.9 million of these long shared segments of DNA shared by at least two people in their study.

And then eight great-grandparents, sixteen great-great-grandparents, and so on. If you go back to the time of Charlemagne, forty generations or so, you should get to a generation of a trillion ancestors.

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